Desalting of crude oil

A two-stage system a dehydration stage and a desalting stage is recommended is shown in Figure 4. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle; all help to cut down on the amount of waste we throw away. The salts that are most frequently present in crude oil are calcium, sodium and magnesium chlorides.

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It all depends on the intimate mixing of remnant water with dilution water, in order to maximize the desalting operation. For a crude that is a mixture of thousands of hydrocarbons, some very light compounds such as ethane and propane only appear in the top product, while extremely heavy and non-volatile compounds such as asphalts only appear in the bottom.

Next, let us examine in details crude oil desalting process in order to unearth and seize opportunities for waste minimization.

Desalting and Distillation | FSC Petroleum Refining

In addition, some chlorides will decompose under high temperature, forming corrosive hydrochloric acid:. Recommended doses to use range between 3 and 10 ppm of the crude oil. The effectiveness of this dilution reaction is determined by a variety of influences, e. Improving crude oil desalting processes Reducing the salt content of the treated crude oil to acceptable levels creates high fouling throughout the process.

Another recycle scheme, intrastage recycling, was previously limited because it requires mixing of the recycle water and the fresh water, thereby lessening the effectiveness of the fresh water; however, the advent of counterflow desalting made it feasible to inject recycle water ahead of the mixing valve of a single-stage desalter and to inject the fresh water into the counterflow distributors, thereby increasing the drop population without raising the salinity of the fresh dilution water.

How to maintain a spiral heat exchanger kB. These field processing operations cover the myriad procedure required to handle the crude oil mixture between the well head and the delivery points for refining ol and other usages as shown next in Figure 1. Desalting of crude oil will eliminate or minimize problems resulting from the presence of mineral salts in crude oil. Minimizing refinery costs using spiral heat exchangers kB.

Waste Management in Crude Oil Processing: Crude Oil Dehydration and Desalting

In addition, the following factors should be considered along this line: The large population of small water droplets and fines forms very stable crude oil emulsions that are difficult to break using conventional treaters.

These techniques use atomic absorption or inductively coupled plasma and are accurate and highly automated; however, they do not distinguish between water-soluble salts and those that exist primarily in the oil phase e.

It should be emphasized that a balance must be maintained between the variables involved in the desalting process which include:. Operational considerations of emulsion treating. More volatile compounds with low boiling points tend to vaporize more readily than heavy compounds, and this forms the basis of separation through distillation. This is known as interstage recycling.

All dedalting these distillation products are subjected to subsequent processing to produce light and middle distillate fuels and non-fuel products, as described in the following sections starting with LEU. Because quantities of available dilution water usually are limited, the effluent water often is recycled to increase drop population. The term desalter may also refer desalitng a water desalination facility used to treat brackish water from agricultural runoff.

Waste Management in Crude Oil Processing: Crude Oil Dehydration and Desalting

Several case studies from the Middle East are included. The most concerns of the impurities in crude oil deswlting listed as follows: To minimize downtime and optimize effluent cooling, low-fouling Alfa Laval heat exchangers are an excellent choice.

In addition, saving of capital spent by industry for disposing of wastes could be eliminated. Heavy crudes require desaltkng high wash water ratio to increase electrical coalescence otherwise, residual products will be formed, containing higher salt ratio.

Distillation separates hydrocarbon compounds into distillate fractions based on their boiling points or volatility. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.

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The most economical place for the desalting process is usually in the refinery. Alfa Laval high-efficiency heat exchangers feature compact, space-saving designs with low fouling tendencies and are made of high-grade, corrosion-resistant material.

Log in to your subscription Username. When it comes to the initial step in handling a crude oil mixture, it is subjected first to what is known as wet-crude handling-facilities.

The effect of operating parameters in the desalting operation is discussed. The removal of salt from crude oil for refinery feed stocks is must.

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